I am presently coordinating a projet named "Impacts of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains: from wild fish in the water to protein on the plate" (Fréon et al., 2010) involving a group of 18 scientists and students from France, Peru and Canada. The aim of the study is to quantify and compare the environmental and socio-economical impacts of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains for direct and indirect human consumption, from end to end (Fig. 1).
Figure 2. Simplified diagram of the functioning and environmental impact of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chain. The large composite image with a red frame in the diagram represents the Peruvian Marine ecosystem whereas items surrounding it in the far left and upper parts of the diagram represent natural forcing (sunlight, wind, Coriolis and gravity forces) and “exosomatic” input such as construction materials (wood, mineral) and domesticated energies (fuels). Items on the left hand side of the diagram represent transformation of anchoveta for direct or indirect human consumption, for instance through carnivorous fish cultivated in Asia.
The first ongoing step is a comparison of impacts resulting from the extraction phase according to the type of boat (small - scale, semi-industrial wooden boat, and industrial steel boat fleets) and, within each of these three categories, according to boat size. Life cycle assessments of the extraction phase will be performed, along with analyses of employment (direct and indirect) and economical rent in order to provide decision makers with a broader and multidimensional understanding of this complex sector. A similar study is currently undertaken for the transformation phase (fishmeal and fish oil production, canned fish, frozen fish, fresh fish and cured fish) both locally in Peru and abroad (for example in Asia). The project is challenging due to its scope along with technical and scientific issues such as the unification of energy units according to their sources and diversity of the conversion processes from ecosystems to human driven systems: conventional eco-energetics around biomass from the ecosystem will be completed by calculations of exosomatic energy available for human societies (considered through the exergy concept), resulting mainly from the use of fossil fuels (Georgescu - Roegen, 1971; Margalef, 1980; Ayres and Weaver, 1998). Here we will try to reconcile recent approaches such as the New Ecology (Jørgensen et al., 2007), Industrial Ecology and Industrial Metabolism (Socolow et al., 1994, Ayres and Ayres, 1996) and Generalized Ecology (Frontier et al., 2008). We will also try to reconcile economical and environmental issues, making use of the concepts of ecological economics or eco - economy (Costanza et al., 1999; Brown, 2001; Cutler et al., 2002) and economics of industrial ecology (van den Berg and Janssen, 2004).
I I did all my career working for IRD (formely ORSTOM), with a common subjet of study: small pelagic fish (sardine, anchovy, mackerel and horse-mackerel). I started in 1974 by a 6-year in Senegal were I worked in collaboration with scientists from the Senegalese Institute of Agronomical Research (ISRA). In this country I was involved in conventional fishing research activities including biological and catch data collection and analysis, including artisanal fisheries. My special contribution was the incorporation of environmental variables into surplus production models. I developped the interacting CLIMPROD software which helps the user to select the most appropriate model, according to objective criteria, and then to fit it and assess the fit.
My next place of work was the Island of Margarita, in Venezuela (1981-1983), where I worked in collaboration with the La Salle Fundation of Natural Sciences (FLASA), and to a lesser extend with FONAIAP and the Univesity "Universidad del Oriente". My line of research was similar to the one I had in Senegal. I co-edited book on the Venezuelan sardine (Sardinella aurita), its environment and exploitation in eastern Venezuela (Editions IRD, Colloques et Séminaires) with my Venezuelan colleague Jeremy Mendoza.
Then I came back to Montpellier, France, to prepare my Doctoral Thesis (1984-1986), mainly based on my experience in Senegal.
From 1987 to 1991 I was based in the Martinique Island, West Indies, where I took a new orientation toward fish behaviour studies in relation to stock assessment by acoustic. My colleagues Dr François Gerlotto, Dr Marc Soria an I made field studies related to the identification and correction of bias related to acoustic surveys.
During the following stay in France (1992-1997), I continued fish behaviour studies, focussing on schooling behaviour, within a European project between Spain, Italy and France. I completed a book on pelagic fish behaviour, coauthored with my Norwegian colleague Dr Ole Arve Misund and edited by Blackwell Science.
My activity took place within the Upwelling Ecosystem Programme (ECO-UP 2005-2008) of which I was the scientific director, and the EUR-OCEANS European network of excellence in which I was leading the Upwelling System group, an overarching activity between ECO-UP and other programs or institutions.
ECO-UP was a continuation of the former IDYLE Programme (2001-2004), which is itself a follow-up of the VIBES project (1997-2000), primarily directed towards coastal pelagic resources of the Benguela ecosystem and their management. The scientific focus of ECO-UP was to understand the structure and functioning of upwelling ecosystems, which are subject to climate change and increasing fishing pressure. We made use of a variety of integrated methods and tools used to model, assess and manage. We were thus aiming for an articulation and presentation of knowledge, using fundamental ecological questions, leading to management applications, especially for the developing countries.
The programme was developed in three ecosystems (countries in brackets were our focus points):
- Benguela ecosystem (South Africa)
- Humboldt ecosystem (Peru)
- Canary ecosystem (Morocco)
The program made use of generic tools in order to allow the fast transfer of the methodology and results to other areas. Training constituted a major aspect of this programmeat both bilateral and regional scales.
ECO-UP was a collaborative programme between IRD, M&CM (Marine and Coastal Management; Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism), UCT (University of Cape-Town), IMARPE (Instituto del Mar del Peru), INRH (Institut National de Recherche Halieutique, Morocco) and other universities / institutes in the different ecosystems. ECO-UP was funded by those institutions and benefited from additional French fundings. ECO-UP was closely associated with the Benguela Ecology Programme (BEP-V) and affiliated to the GLOBEC international programme as well as to BENEFIT and BCLME regional programmes.
My personnal activity in the IDYLE and ECO-UP Programmes was the scientific animation of the group and direct involvement in activities related to the study of reproductive strategies using IBM modelling, retrospective data analysis (statistical and GIS tools) within sub-groups of French, South-African, Peruvian and Moroccan scientists. Members of our team has been awarded the Gilchrist medal for our contribution to marine research in South Africa. This award was given to the "three Musketeers", the three of us who arrived first in the country (Philippe Cury, Claude Roy and myself).
The "three Musketeers" handing their Gilchrist Medal. From left to right: Philippe Cury, Pierre Fréon and Claude Roy
map of place of works
Pierre FREON CRHMT
age : 62 Avenue Jean Monnet
Docteur Es-Sciences 34209 Sète
Ecologie des pêches France
Tél./fax: +33 4 99 57 32 02
I am a French Scientist of the Institute of Research for Development (IRD, France). I have a Veterinary diploma from the University of Toulouse and a PhD diploma from the University of Marseille (France). I have been working for IRD since 1975 and I was member of the Scientific Council of my institute during five years. I devoted all my career to coastal pelagic fish species, particularly in West Africa, Venezuela, West Indies and now Southern Africa. I studied first fish biology and population dynamics aspects in relation to environmental factors, then stock assessment by acoustic with a special focus on fish behavior.
Up to 2008 I was leading the ECO-UP international program (Structure and functioning of exploited upwelling ecosystems: comparative analyses within the framework of an ecosystem approach to fisheries) on the Benguela, Humboldt and Canary regions involving around 40 scientists mainly from South Africa, Peru, Morocco and France. Our program was affiliated to SPACC-GLOBEC and to the BENEFIT regional program (I was a member of the BENEFIT international scientific advisory panel, and a former chaiman of this group). I was involved in the EUR-OCEANS European network of excellence in which I am leading the Upwelling System group.
I am presently coordinating a projet named "Impacts of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains: from wild fish in the water to protein on the plate" (Fréon et al., 2010) involving a group of 18 scientists and students from France, Peru and Canada. The aim of the study is to quantify and compare the environmental and socio-economical impacts of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains for direct and indirect human consumption, from end to end.
I’m author or co-author of 60 scientific papers in international journals, 33 book-chapters or assimilated and a book entitled : “Dynamics of pelagic fish distribution and behaviour: effects on fisheries and stock assessment.” (Fréon, P. and Misund O.A. 1999. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 348 p.).
-French (mother tongue)
-English: read, spoken, written (level: good)
-Spanish: read, spoken, written (level: medium)
|First names:||Pierre, François, Lucien|
|Date of birth:||06/07/1950 (62)|
|Place of birth:||Sainte-Colombe de Villeneuve s/Lot (47)
|Personal address||14, rue Brahms
Avenue Jean Monet, 34203 Sète Cedex
Tél: +33 4 99 57 32 02 ; Fax: +33 4 99 57 32 95
- Baccalaureate in agriculture; Agen (France)
- Baccalaureate D (in sciences); Agen (France)
- Preparation of the entrance examination to the National Veterinary Schools; Perigueux (France).
- Doctorate of Veterinary Medicine; Toulouse; (France).
- Certificate C4 of Biological Oceanography; Marseille (France).
- DEA (Specialisation Degree) of Biological Oceanography; Marseille (France).
- Entrance examination to ORSTOM (French Institute of Scientific Research in Co-operation for Development; now renamed IRD).
- Thesis Doctorate of Science; Marseille (France).
Current Position and Scientific Research SubjectsI am presently coordinating a projet named "Impacts of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains: from wild fish in the water to protein on the plate" (Fréon et al., 2010) involving a group of 18 scientists and students from France, Peru and Canada. The aim of the study is to quantify and compare the environmental and socio-economical impacts of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains for direct and indirect human consumption, from end to end.
Professional experienceSalaried employee in IRD (ex-ORSTOM) since end 1974 (excepted from 6/11/75 to 1/3/77, military service as volunteer for active service in over-seas research, but still serving in ORSTOM). I had the following occupations:
- Scientist at the Centre de Recherches Océanographiques de Dakar-Thiaroye (CRODT) in Senegal. I worked in fisheries biology and population dynamics of coastal pelagic fish species of West Africa
- Manager of the research programme "Study of the Coastal Pelagic Fisheries of Senegal" of the CRODT
- Participation to CECAF (FAO Central East Committee of Atlantic Fisheries) working groups
- Scientist at the Fondacion la Salle in Venezuela. I worked on fishery biology and population dynamics of the species exploited by the small scale fisheries.
- Participation to WECAF (FAO Western Committee of Atlantic Fisheries) working groups
- Scientist at the laboratory of Marine Hydrobiology in the Montpellier University an then in the ORSTOM laboratory of Montpellier during the writing of my thesis.
- Manager of de ORSTOM division "Environment and Coastal Marine Resources" (37 scientists and technicians).
- Scientist at the ORSTOM centre of Fort-de-France (Martinique, West Indies).
- Manager of the EICHOANT (Study of the Behaviour Influence on Fisheries Biology and on Acoustic Observations in Tropical Areas).
- Scientific co-ordinator of the Pôle de Recherche Océanologiques et Halieutique Caraïbe (thirty scientists from IFREMER, ORSTOM and University of Antilles-Guyane).
- Manager of the EICHOANT program until 1994. Then scientist in charge of writing a book.
University of Science and Orstom Centre, Montpellier, France.
- Director of the IDYLE Programme
Marine and Coastal Management, Cape Town, South Africa.
- Director of the ECO-UP Programme
Centre de Recherche Halieutique, Sète, France.
Foreign languages-French (mother tongue)
-English: read, spoken, written (level: reasonably good)c -Spanish: read, spoken, written (level: medium)